Academic Papers

Aspects of Exchange in a Kalinga Society, Northern Luzon (Volumes I, Volume II, Volume III)
Michiko Takaki
Yale University, Ph.D., 1977
Anthropology, cultural


This dissertation constitutes one part of Takaki’s extended research on Kalinga ethnography. It focuses on one particular form of exchange in the Uma region in relation to her overall investigation of cultural adaptations in the agricultural communities of Kalinga. The larger project, within the context of which this study should be understood, has aimed at determining as accurately as possible the processes by which a particular agricultural people make their living, regulate their social relations, and maintain and modify through time their relationships with their physical and social environments.

A Strategic Marketing Plan for Eighth Wonder’s Heirloom Rice
Katherine Birnie, Teena Cam, Shaheen Robinson, Anneli Schalock, Penny Welsh, David Whitelaw
Tuck School of Business, Hanover, NH USA


First year students at Tuck School of Business were asked to develop a strategic marketing plan to help build demand in the heirloom rice in the US. This report summarizes their findings and recommendations. The report is divided into three main sections: (1) market analysis, (2) recommended strategic marketing plan and (3) implementation roadmap. Recommendations are based on market research and reflect the students’ opinions at this point in time.

Beyond Fair Trade: A business model that embodies equality in a trade partnership
Mary Hensley
A Capstone Paper for fulfillment of a Masters of International and Intercultural Management
School for International Training, Brattleboro, Vermont. 2004


The fair trade model is an attempt to address the growing economic inequities and environmental degradation that have accompanied the growth in world trade. Fair trade can make a difference to both producer and consumer, but it has important limitations.  The fair trade model has failed to promote producer involvement in retailing or develop allocation vehicles to distribute equity to the producers. Only recently have projects and business partnerships begun to experiment with producer ownership of retail mechanisms as a way to help producers gain more control over their economic situation.

Disembedding grain: Golden Rice, the Green Revolution, and heirloom seeds in the Philippines

Glenn Davis Stone and  Dominic Glover
Agriculture and Human Values
Journal of the Agriculture, Food, and Human Values Society
Volume 33, No. 1 Spring 2016


The present paper corrects this blinkered view of Golden Rice through an analysis of three distinctive ‘‘rice worlds’’ of the Philippines: Green Revolution rice developed at the International Rice Research Institute  (IRRI) in the 1960s, Golden Rice currently being bred at IRRI, and a scheme to promote and export traditional ‘‘heirloom’’ landrace rice.

From the invention of landscapes to the construction of territories
The terraces of the Ifugaos (Philippines) and the Cevenols (France)

De l’invention des paysages à la construction des territoires : les terrasses des Ifugaos (Philippines) et des Cévenols (France)

Aurélie Druguet
Ecole Doctorale Sciences de la Nature et de l’Homme 2010
National Museum of Natural History
Doctoral School of Nature and Human Sciences


All over the world, terrace “terroirs” are invested with the combined dynamics of landscape conservation and alternative economic activities, for example the economic development of local products. These dynamics create significant social and territorial stakes at the local scale. Terrace landscapes and local products support political claims and demands for recognition by local people. This thesis proposes a comparative approach between two contrasted terrace “terroirs” regions, the Cevennes (Gard) and the Ifugao Province (Philippines). The promotion activities of the rice fields and the tinawon rice that is exported to the USA seem to the different Ifugao groups to be new tools with which to differentiate themselves and reinforce their current social and territorial singularities.

Heirloom rice in Ifugao: an ‘anti-commodity’ in the process of commodification
Dominic Glover & Glenn Davis Stone
The Journal of Peasant Studies, 2017


We analyse the marketing of ‘heirloom rices’ produced in the Cordillera mountains of northern Luzon, the Philippines, as the commodification of a historical ‘anticommodity’. We contend that, historically, rice was produced for social, cultural and spiritual purposes but not primarily for sale or trade. The Ifugaos were able to sustain terraced wet-rice cultivation within a system of ‘escape agriculture’ because they were protected from Spanish interference by the friction of terrain and distance. ‘Heirloom rice’ is a boundary concept that enables social entrepreneurs to commodify traditional landraces. We analyze the implications for local rice production and conservation efforts.

Let’s Hope the Bile is Good!
Aurora Ammayao with Gene Hettel
Published in The Art of Rice: Spirit and Sustenance in Asia
Roy W. Hamilton, Curator/editor
UCLA Fowler Museum of Cultural History (2003)


“It was during those days (of growing up) that I asked myself: what kind of culture is this? I saw no merit or purpose in preserving such traditions….Nearly forty years later, the situation has changed dramatically. Many aspects of Ifugao culture seem to be on the brink of oblivion. My late father had given up the ways of the mumbaki for Christianity in the mid-1980s. In contrast, I, with three children of my own, have come full circle and feel that all Ifugao will lose an essential part of themselves if their culture is permitted to slip away.”

Perspectives on Social Change in the Philippines: Commodity, Politics and Social Norms Elaboration
Pierre Mettra
EHESS/Centre Norbert Elias,Marseille, France


We can evoke two systems of social eminence in Banaue. One is centered on the possession of rice fields, theoretically acquired hereditarily, by a certain social group of people called kadangyan. Another one is constituted of persons who gathered a lot of money by participating in activities located at the interface between the Ifugao social world and outside spaces: jobs in the city, emigration, access to a well-paid position thanks to a diploma from a university in Manila, tourism businesses etcetera.

Preserving a Legacy: Social Capital Development through Enterprise among the Indigenous People of the Philippines
John Christian C. Flaminiano
Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore
Master in International Cooperation and Development


This paper examines the impact of enterprise building through cooperation on the social capital in the rural areas of the mountains of the Cordillera in the Philippines. The NGO RICE Inc., social enterprise Eighth Wonder, Inc., local government units and the Department of Agriculture Philippines act as the main coordinators with the local farmers through the heirloom rice project.

Producer Organization: A Market-led Approach to Tackling Poverty in the Rural Philippines
Giselle Aris
Masters Thesis in International Development
University of Oxford, England


The 2008 World Development Report concedes that there are no magic bullets in the complex process of agriculture- for-development. The emphasis the report places on strengthening producer organization performance implies that the Bank views producer organization as the new panacea for overcoming rural poverty and all the factors that contribute to it, from market failures and insufficient provision of public services to lagging smallholder competitiveness. The purpose of this thesis, then, is to critically investigate whether producer organization is an appropriate response to smallholder poverty.

Valuing Folk Crop Varieties for Agroecology and Food Security
Dr Debal Deb, Founder-Chair
Centre for Interdisciplinary Studies, India 2009


Since Hurricane Aila’s devastation, there has been a frantic search for the salt-tolerant rice seeds created by the ancestors of the current Sunderban farmers. With agricultural modernization, these heirloom crop varieties had slipped through the farmers’ hands. But now, after decades of complacency, farmers and agriculture experts alike have been jolted into realizing that on the saline Sunderban soil, modern high-yield varieties are no match for the “primitive,” traditional rice varieties.